the truth of unit 731

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... probably never really know what went down in the making of Men Behind the Sun but we do know that the actual story of Unit 731 is horrifying. The film examines the true story of Unit 731, a covert biological research unit, used by Imperial Japan during the Second World War. No findings of fact were made about the existence of human experimentation, but the decision of the court was that reparations are determined by international treaties and not by national court cases. Some of Unit 731's … Some prisoners had their stomachs surgically removed and the esophagus reattached to the intestines. The Japanese government—which until then had never officially acknowledged the atrocities committed by Unit 731—rejected the request.[74]. The 2001 documentary Japanese Devils was composed largely of interviews with 14 members of Unit 731 who had been taken as prisoners by China and later released. Also, he warned them if the public learned the … Ishii organized a secret research group, the "Tōgō Unit", for chemical and biological experimentation in Manchuria. [9][10], Unit Tōgō was implemented in the Zhongma Fortress, a prison/experimentation camp in Beiyinhe, a village 100 km (62 mi) south of Harbin on the South Manchuria Railway. [94], In 1997, the international lawyer Kōnen Tsuchiya filed a class action suit against the Japanese government, demanding reparations for the actions of Unit 731, using evidence filed by Professor Makoto Ueda of Rikkyo University. A report on the Japanese use of plague-infested fleas on Changde was made widely available the following year, but was not addressed by the Allied Powers until Franklin D. Roosevelt issued a public warning in 1943 condemning the attacks. Army Engineer Hisato Yoshimura conducted experiments by taking captives outside, dipping various appendages into water, and allowing the limb to freeze. The accusations of both the US and the USSR were true, and it is believed that the Japanese had also given information to the Soviets regarding their biological experimentation for judicial leniency. A male and female, one infected with syphilis, would be brought together in a cell and forced into sex with each other. In addition, poisoned food and candies were given to unsuspecting victims. Humans were also tied to stakes and used as targets to test pathogen-releasing bombs, chemical weapons, and explosive bombs as well as bayonets and knives. [15], A special project code-named Maruta used human beings for experiments. These bombs enabled Japanese soldiers to launch biological attacks, infecting agriculture, reservoirs, wells, as well as other areas with anthrax, plague-carrier fleas, typhoid, dysentery, cholera or other deadly pathogens. All of these units comprised Ishii's network, and at its height in 1939, was composed of more than 10,000 personnel. While male prisoners were often used in single studies, so that the results of the experimentation on them would not be clouded by other variables, women were sometimes used in bacteriological or physiological experiments, sex experiments, and as the victims of sex crimes. Comments Off on The Truth of Harbin Unit 731 Williams, Peter, and Wallace, David (1989). Fetal survival and damage to mother's reproductive organs were objects of interest. Many Chinese are still suffering the effects of a vicious campaign of germ warfare. From August 1940, the units were known collectively as the "Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department of the Kwantung Army (関東軍防疫給水部本部)"[13] or "Unit 731" (満州第731部隊) for short. [7] Some others have been South East Asians and Pacific Islanders, on the time colonies of the Empire of Japan, and a small quantity of the prisoners of warfare from the Allies of World War II[8] (though many extra Allied POWs have been victims of Unit 731 at different websites[1]). Official silence under United States occupation, Post-occupation Japanese media coverage and debate, Significance in postwar research of bio-warfare and medicine. In addition to the establishment of Unit 731, the decree also called for the establishment of an additional biological warfare development unit called the Kwantung Army Military Horse Epidemic Prevention Workshop (later referred to as Manchuria Unit 100) and a chemical warfare development unit called the Kwantung Army Technical Testing Department (later referred to as Manchuria Unit 516). May 21, 2014 - Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. The second follows the men of Unit 731—focusing on Shiro Ishii, his … Japanese discussions of Unit 731's activity began in the 1950s, after the end of the American occupation of Japan. NHK Documentary, Kristof, Nicholas D. "Unmasking Horror – A special report. There were also twelve members who were formally tried and sentenced in the Khabarovsk War Crime Trials. Ishii had proposed the creation of a Japanese biological and chemical research unit in 1930, after a two-year study trip abroad, on the grounds that Western powers were developing their own programs. Unit 731 was officially established in 1936. [86] Later in that decade, journalists suspected that the murders attributed by the government to Sadamichi Hirasawa were actually carried out by members of Unit 731. The February 23, 1943 entry read: "Funeral service for 142 dead. Though "a large number of babies were born in captivity", there have been no accounts of any survivors of Unit 731, children included. Included among those prosecuted for war crimes, including germ warfare, was General Otozō Yamada, the commander-in-chief of the million-man Kwantung Army occupying Manchuria. A … The Americans did not try the researchers so that the information and experience gained in bio-weapons could be co-opted into their biological warfare program, much as they had done with German researchers in Operation Paperclip. Plague-infected fleas, bred in the laboratories of Unit 731 and Unit 1644, were spread by low-flying airplanes upon Chinese cities, including coastal Ningbo and Changde, Hunan Province, in 1940 and 1941. Unit 731 (731部隊), based at the Pingfang district of Harbin and led by the infamous Japanese microbiologist Shiro Ishii, was a covert biological warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) and World War II. 126–134, Human Lab Rats: Japanese Atrocities, the Last Secret of World War II (Penthouse, May 2000). There have been several films about the atrocities of Unit 731. Two prisons are hidden in the center of the main building. The com­plex con­tained var­i­ous fac­to­ries. Estimates of those killed by Unit 731 and its related programs range up to half a million people. Parts of organs, such as the brain, lungs, and liver, were removed from some prisoners. Flamethrowers were tested on humans. The Japanese defense counsel argued that the claim was vague and uncorroborated and it was dismissed by the tribunal president, Sir William Webb, for lack of evidence. 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