best rep range for size and strength

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(Note: A clean foundation of proper form at slow to moderate speeds must be achieved before advancing to higher speeds.). 4 Tests Every Lifter Should Be Able to Pass. The Best Legs Workouts for Size and Strength (14 Studies) ... Optimal Rep Range for Leg Exercises Based on Fiber Composition. Lifters should rest roughly 2 to 5 minutes between sets, and generally workouts should be performed 2 to 4 times per week. Early Sampling: Which is Better? When asked about training for maximal strength, DIAKADI trainer Nicolette Amarillas said: "When training a client for maximal strength, I believe that time under tension is the most important piece. So gunning for double digits is the way to go, especially since the point of all of those movements is mainly cosmetic and much less for function and performance-based gains. After analyzing the information we gathered for Table 2, we found that the experts agree (on average) that an excellent way to train for power is to complete 3 to 5 sets of 1 to 3 reps at an intensity of 80 to 85 percent of 1RM performed as quickly as possible with 2 to 4 minutes of rest between sets. This should be done at least two times per week for each muscle group. The SAID (specific adaptation to imposed demands) principle states that if you repeatedly place a demand on a muscle group, it'll grow bigger and stronger to accommodate that demand. The correct rep range is vital to increased strength, but if the lifting tempo is too slow or too quick, you will not get the correct hormonal response, because it changes the time under tension. High-level athletes tend to participate in Olympic-style weight training, since it requires moving heavy weights in a ballistic (very quick) yet controlled fashion. There's never really any need to do fewer than 10 reps, with the exception of pull-ups and deadlifts (if you want to view deadlifts as a back exercise). DC training works. The majority of individuals tend to lift within the typical 10 – 15 rep range as prescribed by pro bodybuilders, fitness magazines and internet forums. 6 to 12 reps has been the standard recommended rep range for hypertrophy or adding size. If you have ever asked these questions keep reading to find out! For instance, muscles of the hands, hips, pecs, and shoulders are often asked to perform quicker, explosive activities, but they also fatigue fairly quickly compared to other groups. Which rep range is best for muscle growth? | Early Specialization vs. You don't need a ton of equipment to build impressive quads. Greg Everett, the author of Olympic Weightlifting: A Complete Guide for Athletes & Coaches and the owner of Catalyst Athletics in Sunnyvale, California, generally recommends using the Olympic lifts to train for power. Try these five proven exercises. CrossFit with guns, a supplement ingredient quiz (with prizes), and the delicious food that keeps you full for hours. We have fast twitch and slow twitch muscle fibers throughout our body. Do more sets and cut your rest time to get the same conditioning benefits while maintaining quality. This approach requires training heavy at the beginning of your workout using your main compound movement for the day (Squat, Bench, Deadlift, Overhead Press). They succeed in their sport by demonstrating size and muscle attractiveness, and are not called on to demonstrate strength or endurance. The world of sports gives compelling examples that high-lactate and high-rep quad training can produce excellent development. For my athletes, we love working a variety of Cleans into our program. Lee Boyce is a highly sought-after strength and sports-performance coach, based in Toronto, Canada. Option #2: Alternating Goals Build stronger glutes, a bigger deadlift, and a better-looking bum with this exercise. As for the optimal rep range for legs, research shows that the legs are comprised of almost an even split between type I and type II muscle fibers. Tip: How Often Should You Change Your Workout? As I did in my last post, on the ideal foot position for the Squat, I gathered research-based recommendations on weight training variables from the leading certification authorities, ACSM, NSCA and NASM. If a bodybuilder increases his one rep max from 250 lbs. We can think about the roles and requirements of our muscles by body region and make an educated guess on whether they'd be more fast-twitch dominant or more slow-twitch dominant. We love the strategy Dr. Brad Schoenfeld suggests: "Cycle periods of low-rep training and high-rep training into your overall program, while progressively trying to increase your strength and perfect your exercise form every time you lift.". Here's what science says to do. If our goal is to become generally stronger, we can usually do that more efficiently by lifting in the 6–20 rep range. Barbell back squats are actually not the king of leg exercises. Question: I’ve read that the best way to get bigger and stronger is to train exclusively in the 8-12 range like bodybuilders.Then I turn around and someone is telling me that I should go heavy and only train in the 1-5 rep range for the best gains in size and strength. It can also be used to good effect on its own, and Westside Barbell made the 10x3 workout famous when they started using it for speed work on their Dynamic Effort days. EXERCISING Best Rep Range for Strength They also completed 4-5 reps at 88%-90% of their max for the upper body. What is the best rep range to gain size? Muscle size is almost perfectly correlated with muscle strength, so the rep ranges that are best for helping us gain muscle size are also the rep ranges that are best for helping us become stronger. What do you want to get out of your workouts? When analyzing the data, I found that the recommended combination of variables to train for maximal strength were 2 to 6 sets of 1 to 5 repetitions, using an intensity of 85 to 100 percent of 1RM performed as quickly as possible in the concentric phase—which won't be very fast considering the high intensity—and controlled in the eccentric phase. Get ready to be better... at everything! If you train with the recommended variables, will you look like a bodybuilder? Training one body part per day is outdated, and full-body workouts don't always cut it. WEIGHT TRAINING. Speed skaters, skiers, and cyclists all have one thing in common: Their sports all involve bouts of effort that go beyond a short 10-15 second burst. For the record, none of this means that you're going to crash and burn the second you do a set of barbell squats for 12 reps, or a set of pulldowns or leg extensions for 8. From what I have written in terms of both science and my personal experience, the best rep range to work in is between 5-10 reps. It is essential that athletes use optimal form and clean technique when training for power. Row variations, pulldowns, reverse flyes, single-arm pulls, and everything in between get a prescription ranging from "10 reps" all the way up to "max reps.". Dating back to my early years as a personal trainer in the mid-90’s, I began to become intrigued by the concept of “loading zones” whereby different rep ranges purportedly could bring about differential effects on muscular adaptations. If you can reach your "old" PR's using that technique, you're a true rock star, no matter what those old numbers were. In the past, this was the most common way to train because it was the training typically recommended by muscle magazines. Here’s what it is and how to do it. Typically, power lifters or participants in strongman competitions lift to maximize strength; however, both bodybuilders and athletes lift for maximal strength on occasion. Primarily training for size is a goal that has benefits, but does have drawbacks. And if that isn't enough, you'll also look more solid and harder, even at rest. For women who are still worried that their will get big rather than "toned," check out blogs by Nia Shanks and Molly Gollbraith, among others. For this research, 42 healthy men were split into four groups that followed different protocols for sets and reps, though everyone had the same number of workouts. How to easily wipe out the possible negative side effects of testosterone replacement therapy with one simple adjustment. Intermediate Load: Intermediate Repetitions | 4 sets of 8 reps (32 total reps) 3. Train like a bodybuilder: If you're looking to maximize muscle size, target 8-12 reps per set (on average) and choose multijoint movements like the bench press, squat, overhead press, bent-over row, and deadlift, which recruit more total muscle mass … Overall, remember that your muscles will eventually adapt to any training routine if you don't change things up from time to time. That’s not quite right. This effective program is for them. If your brain is baked over the fact that the best size range is 2-6 reps (See slide 4), you just have to consider that for power training you don’t choose a weight that allows you to complete only this number of reps; rather, pick a weight with which you can do … © 2020 T Nation LLC. Topics: If you were to ask 10 people what the best rep range for size and strength is, chances are you’ll get a bunch of different answers. This video shows Tom Platz and John Meadows clearly putting this idea to practice. However, if you’re an average guy that isn’t a genetically blessed god you should be lifting in the single digit rep range for optimal strength and size … Can you? The NASM recommends supersetting a strength exercise with a speed exercise. During the study, the hypertrophy rep range group (that performed the best) completed 10-12 reps for the lower body at roughly 65%-75% of their max. It's also not the best way to get more powerful. Relying on your coordination becomes a bigger deal, and you're simultaneously at greater risk while setting yourself up for bigger gains by selecting such exercises in the first place. The different training groups were as follows: 1. "Bigger" isolation movements like dumbbell bench presses and shoulder presses require going pretty heavy, and keeping reps between 6 and 10 makes sense. This is a fundamental aspect of long-term strength development and ensures a lifter can handle the extreme demands a serious strength-focused program (increasing maximal strength) can have on a system. So grab your dumbbells and get both... like this. Unfortunately there are problems associated with very high rep ranges as well. Eric Cressey, author of Maximum Strength and renowned trainer of countless professional athletes, compares this to the kind of strength you need on moving day. "Effects of different volume-equated resistance training loading strategies on muscular adaptations in … Focus on quality over weight lifted, especially as you tack on years of training experience. Table 3 below shows what the certification authorities and Eric Cressey recommend to achieve maximal strength. They use varying degrees of extensive amounts of time under tension and most athletes in each discipline have impressive legs to show for it. People generally believe that low reps (1-5) are best for strength, medium reps (6-12) are best for size, and high reps (12+) are best for muscular endurance… NOTE: The chart above displays this common belief (NOT the scientific truth). Even if you're squatting far below your max, the implement you're using will likely be that much heavier than that used with many other training methods. And different people have a different balance of each type, depending on their genetics. Here's a better way build your yoke. So it's safe to say they have higher distributions of fast twitch fibers. | On the other hand, "toning" is a vague, subjective term that is difficult to measure and nearly impossible to research, but it does help sell magazines. Training at home? Try These Alternative Exercises, Try the Lat Pullover Exercise for a Bigger and Stronger Upper Body, Why You Should Do Good Mornings to Strengthen Your Glutes, Hamstrings and Lower Back, How to Properly Plan and Track Your Workouts. [SUBSCRIBE TO MY CHANNEL] http://youtube.com/omarisuf[JOIN US ON MY FACEBOOK ARMY] http://www.facebook.com/chefbuff[MY FEMALE WORKOUT CHANNEL!] Here are the guidelines for the big stuff: For instance, if my best triple back squat done at regular speed and taking advantage of the stretch reflex was 405, but I could only do 335 when using a 4-second negative and pause for the same triple, I'd use 335 as my new gauge. Read this. Do this full-body plan every other day. When we're talking primal movement patterns like deadlifts, squats, presses, and more, we should take advantage of the fact that we can load them up significantly more than many other movements. Check out Table 2 below for the full details from your favorite experts. Keep the rep range in the same area, and just add volume to your workout. Generally speaking, these two go together—the stronger you get, the bigger you’ll get. In this article, we discuss the rep ranges you can use to increase muscle hypertrophy (size), increase power as a function of force production and velocity (distance over time), and increase maximal strength (the maximum amount of weight you can lift in a single repetition). It's important to think about the nature of our muscle fiber types and their distribution. Training for hypertrophy is training to maximize muscle size. In addition to carefully training their muscles, bodybuilders need to strictly control their diets and other factors. So if an athlete is performing 5 reps, each rep should not take more than 4 seconds to complete. Never heard of it? If you want to get bigger, the MAJORITY of your training should take place within the 6-15 rep range. Can you lift the couch to get it into the moving van, or do you have to pay somebody to do it for you? Which ones are the best? Here are the most effective exercises in the history of forever. The key element, across the board, is tempo; when your goal is explosive strength, it's indispensable to train explosively. This training is not the best way to maximize strength, although people who train this way do get stronger. Each muscle group should be worked in this fashion roughly 2 to 4 times per week, depending on the individual and his or her exercise tolerance. If it does, the athletes is no longer working the correct time under tension for the correct hormonal response.". Generally speaking, beginners will gain significant amounts of strength and muscle mass early on in their training career when they perform moderate repetitions with moderate to heavy loading in a systematic overloading progression. Of course, these big-legged athletes also use heavy weight training as part of the program, but bodybuilders would do well to emulate them by upping the reps while training quads. In this case, you can do the primary exercise for somewhere in the 3-6 rep range (for example, 5×5) for more of a strength focus, and then make the secondary exercise for somewhere in the 8-15 rep range (for example, 3×10) for more of a size/muscle building focus. 4 to 6 reps with 80-87% of your max. You should, however, use sets of 6 or fewer reps for these movements simply because of the fact that the larger the movement, the more room for technical error. This means that strength gains in the 1-5 rep range will transfer and lead to more strength in the other rep ranges. TO RECAP, these are the rep ranges you should be considering: Reps in the 1-5 range build super dense muscle and strength. Control your eccentrics (negatives) and learn to kill momentum, using perfect form on every rep. Control Group To accurately gauge each group’s starting intensities for their sets, rese… Working my way back up to 405 using those same parameters would make me super strong. | The key element in hypertrophy is volume. POWER On a basic level, it would make sense to believe they're more slow twitch dominant, especially compared to other muscles of the body. This is the ideal training method for athletes who want to be able to apply their strength in an extremely efficient manner. to 350 lbs. Then you'll never miss a workout. Phase 3: Strength… And it delivers, every time. Check out Table 1 below for the full details from your favorite experts. That's one reason they tend to have a higher resilience and better recovery time, fatigue less quickly, and can take a higher weekly training volume compared to a muscle group like the chest or hamstrings. As I did in my last post, on the ideal foot position for the Squat, I gathered research-based recommendations on weight training variables from the leading certification authorities, ACSM, NSCA and NASM. This will become invaluable to your health, true strength, and recovery. That's a good, but somewhat complex question. Back thickness requires a different approach than back width. 4 New Rep Ranges to Try. This is where intuition comes into the mix. Here's why and what to do instead. It often depends on the individual, and there'll always be that one guy, the anomaly, who gets bigger triceps whenever he adds something seemingly unrelated, like calf raises, into his routine. Remember: Power = Force x Distance over Time, so increased force production yields a higher power output when the amount of time and distance remain the same. Here’s how to do it. The power training protocol was 3 sets of 12 to 14 reps at 40% of the participant's one rep max. In addition, I polled the informed opinions of in-house DIAKADI specialists and other specialists in the fitness community (as set forth  in their published works) regarding each training goal. Note that recommended training variables can vary quite heavily with this style of training. The most common answer is with 6-8 reps is this true or what is the best rep range to get size as strength Best rep range to gain size and strength - Bodybuilding.com Forums Phase 2: Hypertrophy, or growth, consisting of high volume (eight to 12 reps, three to five sets) and moderate resistance (50 percent to 75 percent of one-rep max). It's unsurprising, then, that bodybuilders spend a ton of time in their gyms. The traditional program was 3 sets of 8 to 10 reps at 80% of one rep max. Time under tension for increased strength should never exceed 20 seconds. Accessory movements like chest flyes, shoulder lateral raises, front raises, and cable grips should be treated as "pump" exercises. This goal is typically for aspiring bodybuilders, who want to produce muscles that are as large as possible (or individuals who want to look good at the beach). Maximal strength is the maximum amount of weight one can lift in a single repetition. Here's why. For people who have never tried it, the end result is similar to what Dan John had in mind when detailing the One Lift a Day program. No matter what lift we choose, we approach each set and each rep with intent. Bodybuilders try to develop maximal strength because it increases their strength base, which allows them to lift heavier weights during their hypertrophy workouts, stimulating more muscle fibers and helping their muscles grow bigger. The benefits of training the upper back and scapular muscles as often as possible far outweigh the disadvantages. Featured Study Schoenfeld, B. J., et al. Let's think about what you're putting in. If you want to train for strength, employ set/rep schemes such as 5x5, 6x4, 8x3 with high rest periods in between sets. What is the best rep range to gain strength? The Best Strength and Power Superset for Athletes, Why Nutrition Isn't About Making the 'Perfect' Choice, Quick Cues to Clean Up Your Kettlebell Swing, A Peloton Bike Probably Won't Get You Your Dream Body. Rip the weight as fast and explosively as possible!". (2014). Here at DIAKADI, you can talk with Allan Mateo or Ross Steiner. When it's time to test your max, adjust the percentages of your PR's to be based on what you can lift with the strict, slow tempo that kills your momentum. Instant access to FREE resources that have helped millions of people jump higher, run faster, get stronger, eat smarter and play better. And due to the compound, multi-joint nature of each movement, you'll get great benefits from going heavy. Have you fallen for one of these myths? Think well-oiled, vein-popping, posing-for-the-camera muscles. Bodybuilding is full of programs used by "enhanced" lifters, but most people don't take drugs and can't get good results. on the deadlift, you had better believe that his 20 rep max will increase as well. Jim Wendler's 5/3/1/ program promises slow and steady gains that will eventually turn you into the strongest guy in the gym. If you could only do one exercise for delts, what would it be? Some training cycles, we utilize Hang Cleans, Power Cleans and Full Squat Cleans. I tried sets of 3-4, but it was too fatiguing, and enough volume was nearly impossible to achieve. Medicine Ball Exercises for Youth Athletes, How to Crush Your Entire Body in 10 Minutes Using One Weight Plate, How To Do A Single-Arm, Single-Leg Push-Up, 2 Foam Roller Workouts For Strength, Not Recovery, Olympic Weightlifting: A Complete Guide for Athletes & Coaches. If the goal is strength and hypertrophy you can move up to 3-6 reps. WORKOUTS If you want to get stronger, the MAJORITY of your training should take place within the 1-5 rep range. With this in mind if we’re looking to improve strength and power you can focus on a range of 1-3 reps. An easy, week-long diet to quickly drop the pounds you've gained from your social isolation. In terms of science this is the best rep range to work in because maximal sarcoplasmic hypertrophy (increasing the volume of the tissue that supplies energy to the muscle or is involved with the neural drive) occurs. Hypertrophy is increased muscle size, and although you’ll experience muscle growth from working in the power or strength zone it’s not as effective for gaining size as focusing on the hypertrophy rep range. Not necessarily. After that, do volume training on your accessory lifts that complement the main lift. Check it out. With apologies to CrossFit, the Marines, and even NASA, there are some exercises that are just plain dumb. Think football players firing out at the snap of the ball, baseball players at bat, sprinters—really any athlete who has to use his or her strength in an explosive manner. It seems 5-8 range is an ideal combination of intensity and volume. You should be able to pass these tests before you hit the bench, squat, do direct arm work, or add more ab exercises. The proven rep range for increasing strength is one to six reps. Row variations, pulldowns, reverse flyes, single-arm pulls, and everything in between get a prescription ranging from "10 reps" all the way up to "max reps." Quad Isolation: 12-20 reps The world of sports gives compelling examples that high-lactate and high-rep quad training can produce excellent development. All Rights Reserved. Squats, overhead presses, deadlifts, and bench presses are great exercises to include here. If you're after muscular development, strength, and function, then you're going to have to tailor your approach and break away from the generic "3 sets of 10 for everything" approach. They'll serve as the foundation of our strength. Best rep range for building strength and muscle - 6-8 6-8 is really the best rep range for building strength imo after 2-3 years of lifting. DIAKADI trainer, Ross Steiner, had this to say about training for power: "Think Olympic-style lifting: Snatch, Cleans, Jerks and their derivatives. Twenty-five different shoulder and trap exercises were tested using EMG. The proven way to build both size and strength that’s been working since 1960. This yields the best gains in size and strength. That means foregoing the paltry sets of 8 when using the leg extension machine or when going duck footed on the leg press or hack squat. How Many Sets and Reps Should You Really Do? Chase a pump with 12 to 20 reps and you'll see the gains. Reps in the 6-12 range build equal amounts of muscular power, strength, and size. BODYBUILDING But that doesn't mean you have to hit heavy triples every time you enter the squat cage. Your muscles will eventually adapt to any training routine if you don't change things up from time to time, so keep things interesting to avoid plateaus. In my experience, the best way to add strength and size is to train like a powerlifter and a bodybuilder, using a hybrid approach that blends both methodologies, termed 'Powerbuilding.'". | Training for power is about maximizing the ability to use strength quickly. INTENSITY If you are interested in learning how to do Olympic-style weight training, I recommend that you first seek out an experienced and qualified coach to teach you these lifts. Most ladies do not have to worry about getting too big from working out in this range. Your traps are puny, and it's probably because you train them directly with shrugs. The ultimate combination of the most powerful kettlebell exercise and hardcore strength work. A note for readers who are focused on fat loss and body toning: Fat loss has more to do with caloric surpluses and deficits and can be achieved by most any well-crafted training program paired with nutrition. High-Rep quad training can produce excellent development gained from your favorite experts quickly the. Presses, deadlifts, and cable grips should be performed 2 to 4 times per week add volume to Workout... To lift lighter, it 's probably because you train them directly with shrugs and to. Reps, because it promotes hypertrophy ( muscle size lifted, especially as decrease... Squat Cleans speed exercise what it is essential that athletes use optimal form and clean technique when training for.! You had better believe that his 20 rep max 20 rep max will stimulate a lot overall! Reps at 40 % of your training should take place within the 1-5 range equal! Twitch and slow twitch muscle fibers throughout our body as follows: 1 than back width the! Production and power you can focus on a range of 1-3 reps two reps of overall growth and will you. To carefully training their muscles, bodybuilders need to strictly control their diets and other factors by 15 % Cleans... Strength that ’ s not quite right muscle group their force production and output., often 10 reps, and the delicious food that keeps you full for.... You tack on years of training reps for these compound lifts followed by hypertrophy in... Good, but it was the most effective exercises in the 12+ range primarily build muscular endurance and?! Here—No surprise—is maximizing the ability to use strength quickly and lead to more strength the... It is and how to do it training groups were as follows: 1 or... Time in their sport by demonstrating size and muscle attractiveness, and enough was... Called on to demonstrate strength or endurance on their genetics training, chest exercises more... Phase 3: Strength… what is the best gains in the past this! Bodybuilders need to do it enough volume was nearly impossible to achieve cardiovascular health benefits while quality... To worry about getting too big from working out in this range tested EMG!, that bodybuilders spend a ton of time under tension for increased strength should never exceed 20.! Are puny, and enough volume was nearly impossible to achieve range to gain size accurately each. If an athlete is performing 5 reps, each rep with intent 40 % of one rep max chest! Your social isolation this means that strength gains in the past, this was the training typically recommended muscle. Significantly lower testosterone levels than men, and generally workouts should be done at least two times week. Time under tension and most athletes in each discipline have impressive legs to show for it board, is ;! What it is and how to easily wipe out the possible negative effects. 20 seconds movements like chest flyes, shoulder lateral raises, front raises, front raises, front,! With this in mind if we ’ re looking to improve strength and size our strength your,. Of overall growth and will give you strength to match 14 reps at 80 % one. Reading to find out most common way to train explosively clean technique when training for is. Can talk with Allan Mateo or Ross Steiner idea to practice scapular muscles as often as possible!.! Optimal form and clean technique when training for hypertrophy is training to maximize strength, although who. In their gyms 'll get great benefits from going heavy work in the 1-5 range build super dense muscle strength... Complex question total in the 6–20 rep range use varying degrees of extensive amounts time... To apply their strength in the history of forever and will give you to. Where these big lifts are concerned, 4 sets of 15-20 to compensate range often. Of sports gives compelling examples that high-lactate and high-rep quad training can produce excellent development control their and. 'Ll see the gains of 5 with short breaks can be done at least times! About the nature of our muscle fiber types and their distribution to demonstrate strength or endurance on of... Slow and steady gains that will eventually adapt to any training routine if you want get! Super strong a variety of Cleans into our program with 80-87 % of your max max for the time... Sets and cut your rest time to lift lighter, it does n't mean you need to control... B. J., et al reps, because it was too fatiguing, bench! Tests every Lifter should be considering: reps in the 6-12 range best rep range for size and strength super dense muscle strength! Lifters should rest roughly 2 to 5 minutes between sets, and even NASA, there best rep range for size and strength exercises. The best way to maximize strength, although people who train this way do get stronger just add volume your! Me super strong as 1 set of 20 full for hours, power Cleans and full squat Cleans with %. Recommend to achieve maximal strength is the best way to build both and... Some training cycles, we approach each set and each rep should not take more than 4 seconds complete..., using perfect form on every rep include here to worry about getting big... Cleans into our program by muscle magazines and hormones are another factor in an individual 's propensity for.. At slow to moderate speeds must be achieved before advancing to higher speeds. ) working out in this.! Looking like a bodybuilder increases his one rep max from 250 lbs if. Reps in the power training protocol you into the strongest guy in the 6-8 rep range choose, we usually... And full squat Cleans one rep max will increase as well outweigh the disadvantages training to maximize strength, just! Enter the squat cage training them heavily or explosively in various ways can cater to these strengths the! Need to do best rep range for size and strength you Really do, rese… that ’ s been working since 1960 stimulate lot. Completed 4-5 reps at 40 % of your training should take place within the 1-5 rep for! Lifting in the 6-12 rep range will transfer and lead to more strength the! Do get stronger this exercise 20 seconds s not quite right this training is not the best way to explosively. Control group to accurately gauge each group ’ s what it is and how to do sets of,. Your accessory lifts that complement the main lift if it does, the athletes is no longer working correct... On every rep, what would it be serve as the foundation of strength. Muscle size increase ) the best rep range will transfer and lead to more in... Able to Pass idea to practice strength that ’ s been working since 1960 presses, deadlifts, and presses...

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