current issues in fisheries
2000). Aquaculture, however, brings its own range of difficulties. Factors that might pre‐dispose species to extinction are known in relatively few groups (Dulvy & Reynolds 2002), although some ecological factors are emerging. An astronomical pattern‐matching algorithm for computer‐aided identification of whale sharks Rhincodon typus. [CDATA[ 2002). Naturally, changes in the oceans will have major repercussions on their capacity to support marine life and, ultimately, fisheries,” wrote the UBC researchers in the latest Nereus Program report. For example, the pronounced effects of some types of fishing methods on aquatic habitats and their fauna are increasingly well known, while more subtle consequences arise from impacts on populations of ‘ecosystem engineers’ (Watling & Norse 1998; Jennings et al. 5. (2002) recently reinforced the importance of reducing fishing capacity to appropriate levels by reducing financial subsidies, and by zoning the oceans to safeguard unfished marine reserves. The impact of the sandeel fishery closure on seabird food consumption, distribution, and productivity in the northwestern North Sea. Aquatic pollution, destruction of fish habitats, water abstraction and impacts on aquatic biodiversity are all increasing. 2002). It can be argued that the primary objective of fisheries management and planning of fisheries development is to avoid over investment. 2002). Management issues arise through the incidental by‐catch of species that are discarded after capture, sometimes in large tonnages (Hall, Alverson & Metuzals 2000). Biomonitoring and Bioindicators Used for River Ecosystems: Definitions, Approaches and Trends. Current understanding of the welfare issues discussed in this review are summarised in Table 1, Table 2, Table 3.Continued research will only further improve our ability to identify and assess areas of welfare concern within aquaculture and allow us improve welfare wherever possible. 2002), but also, in the deep oceans, some of its most poorly known habitats (Angel 1993). Some of the key studies published in the Journal have involved the Southern Ocean system, and in particular the interactions among marine predators (Antarctic fur seal Arctocephalus gazella and macaroni penguin Eudyptes chrsolophus), commercial fin‐fish Champsocephalus gunnari and krill (including Euphausia superba; Everson et al. This issue of the Journal of Applied Ecology brings yet another example, in this case from New Zealand involving a mobile indicator species, further emphasising that the value of marine reserves generalises across marine regions and fish taxa (Willis, Millar & Babcock 2003). the equity of fish distribution; the real or perceived dangers of genetic modification … Issues of environmental change cut across the whole field of fish exploitation, conservation, restoration and management, and are increasingly sources of policy concern (FAO 2002). In a state where angling has near-religion status, fisheries management has always fostered lively debate. Going forward, it will be essential for the UK and devolved governments to work closely and constructively together to agree on how to embed all existing EU environmental law in domestic law, to maintain or improve existing minimum common standards and avoid legal uncertainty. Attitudes of Scottish City Inhabitants to Cetacean Conservation. 2002); substantial structural and functional alterations to aquatic food webs (Townsend 1996); impacts on other vertebrates, such as amphibians or birds, with which fishes interact as predators, prey or competitors (Adams & Maitland 1998; Goodsell & Kats 1999; Gillespie 2001). Many such ecological effects are only now being addressed as aquaculture expands, but appropriately designed experimental assessments are still scarce, and none has yet been published in the Journal of Applied Ecology. As occasionally revealed in the Journal of Applied Ecology, problems are particularly acute in less developed regions of the world where resources for aquatic conservation are fewer and rates of environmental change rapid (Ormerod 1999; Manel et al. The English Channel stock of Sepia officinalis: Modelling variability in abundance and impact of the fishery. 2000). The resulting array of all fish species gives us some of the most remarkable examples of functional design, life cycles, behavioural ecology, physiological adaptations and ecological interactions in the whole of evolution. Of the world's 25 000 known fish species, well over half occur in marine waters, the most extensive biogeographical realm on earth. Symptoms of excessive exploitation also affect fishes in freshwaters, where fishery resources in general are considered important but under‐valued (Pauly et al. In this issue, Gremillet et al. Increasingly, also, fish are recognised for their major roles in ecosystem processes that include trophic cascades, energy transfer between trophic levels, and the transport of nutrients between marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems (Finney et al. of Commerce and U.S. Dept. The Social Dimensions of the Common Fisheries Policy: A Review Of Current Measures. Journal of the North American Benthological Society. All these management approaches require development and evaluation, and will benefit from a perspective of ecological understanding with ecologists fully involved. In locations characterised by high diversity or marked endemicity, this proportion can be much higher (Leidy & Moyle 1998). Non‐indigenous brook trout and the demise of Pacific salmon: a forgotten threat? In marine systems, key issues include the direct effects of exploitation on fish, habitats and other organisms, while habitat or water quality problems arise also from the atmospheric, terrestrial and coastal environments to which marine systems are linked. Compounding the potentially negative effects of exploitation, introductions, and adverse water quality on the integrity of fish communities, changes in habitat character also have major implications. Variation in the abundance of sandeels Ammodytes marinus off southeast Scotland: an evaluation of area-closure fisheries management and stock abundance assessment methods. Current key management problems include: Inadequate fisheries regulations: In many fisheries, current rules and regulations are not strong enough to limit fishing capacity to a sustainable level. This most recent contribution offers an improved and regionally transportable bioenergetics model for assessing daily food intake in this species – now providing one of the best case studies of any wild fish predator. Sublethal effects of exposure to chemical compounds: a cause for the decline in Atlantic eels? If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, The Unfulfilled Promise of Integrated Management: How Policy Discourses Operate in Annapolis Basin, Canada . Listen up Angela! With considerable justification, fish and fisheries rank among the most important of all the world's natural resources. The consequences of fishing can be pronounced for organisms with which people compete for harvestable stocks, while natural predators sometimes affect commercial fish species (Furness 2002). Downloadable (with restrictions)! Due to CO2 emissions, changes in global ocean properties – particularly temperatures, acidity and oxygen levels – are occurring at a scale unprecedented in the last several thousands of years. Not only does this add weight to the growing view that fish management must consider target species as integral parts of aquatic ecosystems, but also it illustrates that the process of fish and fisheries management is one to which ecologists have much to contribute (Larkin 1996; Fluharty 2000; Pitcher 2001; FAO 2002). They have also said that they’re worried fishing out of season will negatively affect the lobster stocks, as it’s occurring during a time when they are breeding. Front Matter. In marine systems, key issues include the direct effects of exploitation on fish, habitats and other organisms, while habitat or water quality problems arise also from the atmospheric, terrestrial and coastal environments to which marine systems are linked. Modelling habitat requirement of European fishes: do species have similar responses to local and regional environmental constraints?. In freshwaters, flow regulation and obstruction by dams, fragmentation, catchment management, pollution, habitat alterations, exotic fish introductions and nursery‐reared fish … Impacts of irrigation on fisheries in rain‐fed rice‐farming landscapes. In turn, these issues are generated both from intrinsic aquatic factors, and from changes in the atmospheric and terrestrial environments to which the earth's aquatic systems are inextricably bound. Despite controversy and clear difficulties associated with marine reserves (Sloan 2002), there is growing evidence of benefit not only to general marine conservation, but also to adjacent fisheries (Roberts et al. Demersal Ichthyofaunal Assemblages in Mauritanian Deep-Waters. Configuration of multiple human stressors and their impacts on fish assemblages in Alpine river basins of Austria. In this issue of the Journal of Applied Ecology, Sundbom et al. Of course, when hundreds, or even thousands of fish are crowded together in a small area, sea lice, and other diseases can easily spread from fish to fish. David Agnew. Alterations in river discharge and sediment transport have consequences for near‐shore marine systems. Ecological River Health Assessments Using Chemical Parameter Model and the Index of Biological Integrity Model. In large contrast to freshwater systems, however, most management actions for fish and fisheries in marine systems emphasise the effects of exploitation on habitats and fish species. The Environment . UK's German envoy issues fisheries warning as Brexit talks hit end game ANGELA MERKEL has been issued a ferocious fisheries warning by the UK's new ambassador to Germany this week. The Grand Banks have the most productive fisheries in the world, including cod, swordfish, scallop, and lobster. With many aquatic systems, and possibly most freshwater systems, already substantially altered by past environmental change, fish conservation will often require habitat restoration (Baron et al. The most serious forms of coastal degradation are the physical destruction of important habitats, water pollution, and the … Impact, including its long-term ecological and social sustainability, is unclear our... 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