femur muscle attachments

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Facet for attachment of the posterior cruciate ligament – Found on the medial wall of the intercondylar fossa, it is a large rounded flat face, where the posterior cruciate ligament of the knee attaches. The distal fragment is pulled upwards and rotated laterally. Muscle attachments of the lower end – Gastrocnemius: The medial head originates from the popliteal surface just above the medial condyle. The nutrient foramen (or foramina) is located on the medial side on the linea aspera and is directed upwards. Actions: Adduction and flexing at the thigh at the hip joint. The femur ossifies from 5 centres: 1 primary and 4 secondary centres. Tibial articulation surface over the lateral condyle is short and straight anteroposteriorly whereas the part over the medial condyle is longer and is convex medially. Popliteus muscle arises from under the lateral epicondyle of the femur. The lower end of the femur is wide and expanded. It contains two facets for attachment of internal knee ligaments. It has a glossy surface with a depression on the medial position; for the attachment of the ligament of head of the femur. The Proximal end consists of a head, neck, and two trochanters. Femur: The femur is classed as a long bone, only bone in the thigh, and the longest bone in the body. The head faces superiorward, medialward, and slightly anteriorward. The femur is an integral component of ambulation. Thus this part of the shaft has four borders (medial, lateral, supracondylar line and lateral supracondylar line) 4 surfaces (anterior, medial, lateral and popliteal). This is an online quiz called Anterior right femur muscle attachments There is a printable worksheet available for download here so you can take the quiz with pen and paper. The muscles that form the quadriceps femoris unite proximal to the knee and attach to the patella via the quadriceps tendon. Femur is the longest and strongest bone in the human body. Secondary centres. It is capable of leaving residual disability in 10-20% patients. Gluteus maximus muscle Insert into the gluteal tuberosity. Quadratus femoris muscle Insert into the intertrochanteric crest of the femur. The cause of the condition is unclear, but genetic, neurologic, neuromuscular and biomechanical agents may contribute to its advancement. It is a rare disease, with an estimated frequency of 1/150,000 births. The anterior surface is flat and meets the shaft at the intertrochanteric line. The popliteus arises from the deep anterior part of the popliteal groove. The posterior and inferior surfaces connect with the tibia and menisci of the knee, while the anterior surface connects with the patella. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Gluteus medius muscle Insert into the lateral surface of the greater trochanter of the femur. Flexor tendon zones influence prognosis following flexor tendon repair. It has two surfaces and four borders. Adductor longus muscle Insert into the medial ridge of linea aspera of the femur. It is a traction … Neck – Attaches the head of the femur with the shaft. Pectineus muscle Insert into the pectineal line. Distally, the femoral condyles of the femur articulate with the condyles of the tibia, making the tibiofemoral joint. A: Anterior view; B: Posterior view This website is an effort to educate and support people and medical personnel on orthopedic issues and musculoskeletal health. Move your mouse over a highlighted region to see which muscles attach there. The upper apophyses (lesser trochanter, greater trochanter and head, in that order) fuse with the shaft at about 18 years. A relationship with type 1 neurofibromatosis or von Recklinghausen’s disease is known but exact pathophysiology […], The typical thoracic vertebrae are seven in number and atypical thoracic vertebra are five in number.Vertebra T2 to T8 are typical and rest of … [Read More...] about Typical and Atypical Thoracic Vertebra. Head of femur Neck of femur The linea aspera is a long vertical line running along the shaft of the posterior femur. The site of attachment for the muscles gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, and piriformis. Distal end of femur 37. These septae separate the extensor muscles from the adductor medially, and from the flexors laterally. Obturator externus muscle Insert into the trochanteric fossa. Duda GN(1), Brand D, Freitag S, Lierse W, Schneider E. Author information: (1)Biomechanics Section, Technical University Hamburg-Harburg, Germany. Gemellus inferior muscle Insert into the lower edge of Obturator internus’s tendon (indirectly greater trochanter). This set constitutes the main supply and damage to it results in necrosis of the head of the following fractures of the neck of the femur. The lower epiphysis fuses by the 20th year. The short head of the biceps femoris arises from the lateral lip of the linea aspera between the vastus lateralis and the adductor magnus, and from the upper two – thirds of the lateral supracondylar line. The extracapsular part of the neck is supplied by the ascending branch of the medial circumflex femoral artery. The prominent convexity of the greater trochanter is the outermost part of the hip area. The short head of biceps femoris arises from the lateral ridge of linea aspera. All rights reserved. Lower band of the iliofemoral ligament in its lower part, Highest fibers of the vastus lateralis from the upper end, Highest fibers of the vastus medialis from the lower end, Quadratus femoris attached on quadrate tubercle, The medial and popliteal surfaces are bare [ Except for part of gastrocnemius origin on the popliteal surface]. All of the femoral ossification centres fuse between the ages of 14 and 18 years. Attachments: Originates from the pelvis and attaches to the femur. The greater trochanter is a large quadrangular prominence located at the upper part of the junction of the neck with the shaft. The upper and bears a rounded head, whereas the lower end is widely expanded to from two large condyles. The lateral border enhances the gluteal tuberosity, where the gluteus maximus attaches. The lesser trochanter - A pyramidal prominence that projects from the proximal (near) and medial (inside) part of the shaft of the femur. Muscles that originate from the pelvis and insert on the anterior or posterior surface of the femur to facilitate flexion and extension around the hips. Muscles which arise from the femur will cross the knee joint to insert on the proximal tibia … The rectus femoris is part of the quadriceps femoris muscle group, along with the 3 "vasti" muscles: the vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius and vastus medialis.. In this article, we shall look at the anatomy of the femur – its attachments, bony landmarks, and clinical correlations. The posterior surface is convex from above downwards and concave from side to side. It meets the shaft at the intertrochanteric crest. So, watch this fun lecture and maximize your learning! Most often, the term is used in cases of spine tuberculosis where there is no apparent osseous lesion. In the adult it is about 1 cm lower than the head. The iliacus is inserted on the anterior surface of the base of the trochanter, and on the area below. The fovea on the head of the femur provides attachment to the ligament of the head (round ligament, or ligamentum teres). Origin: (proximal attachments) a.Anterior surface of lateral sacrum. Adductor tubercle is a projection posterosuperior to the epicondyle which serves as an important landmark. Anteriorly, the notch is limited by the patellar articular surface. It is the point of insertion of different muscles. Iliacus muscle Insert into the lesser trochanter of the femur. It is a clinical label for the patient’s condition with many differentials in the offering. Search Help in Finding Anterior right femur muscle attachments - Online Quiz Version This is a superficial sheet of fascia along the lateral thigh, extending from the gluteal fascia, down to the tibial tubercle at the knee. It also is known as neuralgic […], The term cold abscess refers to an abscess [An Abscess is a collection of liquefied tissue(pus) in the body] where typical signs of abscess [warmth, redness, tenderness,] are absent. The proximal area of the femur forms the hip joint with the pelvis. It is directed lateral and medially and slightly posterior. In turn, the patella is attached to the tibia by the patella ligament. It is a conical eminence directed medially and backwards from the junction of the posterior part of the neck with the shaft. Gluteus minimus muscle Insert into the forefront of the greater trochanter. Bypass the tricky bony landmark terms for now and familiarize yourself with just the two bones each muscle attaches to. It is a smooth rounded ridge which begins above at the posterior superior angle of the greater trochanter and ends at the lesser trochanter. Following structures attach to the intertrochanteric line, Following video summarizes the femoral bone. Vastus intermedius – upper three-fourths of the anterior and lateral surfaces. Piriformis muscle Insert into the superior boundary of the greater trochanter. Anteriorly, the condyles articulate with patella and this articulation extends more on the lateral condyle than on the medial. It teams up with tibia and bones of the foot to help you fight against gravity, enabling you to stand and perform movements of your lower limb. Copyright © 2016 - 2019 How To Relief. It is a roughened ridge from the anterosuperior angle of the greater trochanter (as a tubercle) and is continuous below with the spiral line in front of the lesser trochanter. The lower end of the lateral supracondylar line gives origin to the plantaris above and the upper part of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius below. Gluteus Maximus: The gluteus maximus is the main extensor muscle of the hip. The anterior surface of the femoral neck is entirely intracapsular. The primary centre appears in the midshaft. Required fields are marked *, By using this form you agree with the storage and handling of your data by this website. Lower end of Femur – At end of the 9th month of intrauterine life. The upper border, concave and horizontal, meets the shaft at the greater trochanter. Greater trochanter – A projection of bone that starts from the anterior aspect, just parallel to the neck. Instant anatomy is a specialised web site for you to learn all about human anatomy of the body with diagrams, podcasts and revision questions It is found on the posterior surface of the femur. The greater trochanter is located at the junction between the neck and the shaft of the femur bone. The Linea aspera has distinct medial and lateral lips. Iliacus muscle Insert into the lesser trochanter of the femur. As the femur is the only bone in the thigh, it serves as an attachment point for all the muscles that exert their force over the hip and knee joints. The medial and lateral surfaces are directed more backwards than to sides. The medial border and medial supracondylar line meet inferiorly to obliterate the medial surface. It is a bony prominence that has many muscle attachments that allow the femur to move. Muscle attachments. Insertion: (distal attachments) a.Greater trochanter of femur… The patellofemoral joint is made by the articulation of the patella with the intercondylar groove of the femur. Attachments on the Femur Head of Femur. The neck is about is about 3-3.5 cms long and connects head with the shaft. The vessels produce longitudinal grooves and foramina directed towards the head, mainly on the anterior and posterior- superior surface. 6. It is cylindrical, projecting in a superior and medial direction – this angle of projection permits for an enhanced range of movement at the hip joint. The lateral surface is crossed by an oblique ridge directed downwards and forwards. If the lesion is all the way through the cartilage, it is called full-thickness lesion, otherwise, it is a partial thickness lesion. A lot of the large thigh muscles arise from and insert on the various parts of the femur. Tibial collateral ligament of the knee – medial epicondyle, Hamstring part of the adductor magnus – adductor tubercle. The gluteus medius is inserted into the ridge on the lateral surface. Deep lateral rotators muscles are- piriformis, gemellus superior, gemellus inferior, quadratus femoris and obturator internus. The shaft in middle one-third has three borders -medial, lateral and posterior. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. The head is directed medially. The greater trochanter is a bony protrusion located in the upper extremity, or femur epiphysis. The proximal femoral head articulates with the acetabulum of the pelvis, forming a “ball-and-socket” joint. There is a rounded tubercle on its superior half, this is designated the quadrate tubercle, where the quadratus femoris attaches. Case Discussion. Thus a cold abscess is not accompanied by the classical […], Congenital pseudarthrosis of tibia is an uncommon disease with clinical presentations ranging from simple anterolateral tibial angulation to complete non-union with extensive bone defects. The lesser trochanter is also called the minor trochanter, the inner trochanter, and the medial process of the femur. Proximal Femur Anterior View Vastus Lateralis This muscle has an extensive attachment from the - Upper Intertrochanteric Line - Base of the Greater Trochanter - Lateral Linea Aspera - Lateral Supracondylar Ridge - Lateral Intermuscular Septum One of the four Quadriceps muscles right femur 61. It is composed of an upper end, a lower end and a shaft. Medial head of the gastrocnemius extends to the popliteal surface just above the medial condyle. The femur is the only bone in the thigh and the longest bone in the body. The gluteus medius and minimus, gemellus superior and inferior, obturator internus, and piriformis are some muscles that insert on the greater trochanter. Pseudarthrosis means false joint. Plantaris muscle arises from over the lateral condyle of the femur. Articular cartilage covers the ends of bones. To understand spinal tumor syndrome one must first know about the typical presentation […], Articular cartilage injury is common and the lesions appear as tears or potholes in the surface of the cartilage. The lower border, straight and oblique, meets the shaft near the lesser trochanter. The medial supracondylar line stops at the adductor tubercle, where the adductor magnus muscle attaches. It has a prominence called the lateral epicondyle. When the surface of the cartilage is […], Parsonage Turner syndrome or brachial neuritis is a rare disorder which affects lower motor neurons of brachial plexus and/or nerves and their branches and is manifested by acute shoulder pain followed by weakness of the muscles of the shoulder. The cylindrical shaft is convex forwards. Intertrochanteric line – A ridge of bone that runs in an inferomedial and connecting the two trochanters together. Vastus medialis – Lower part of the intertrochanteric line, the spiral line, the medial lip of the linea aspera, and the upper one –fourth of the medial supracondylar line. A femoral fracture that includes the femoral head, femoral neck or the shaft of the femur immediately below the lesser trochanter, particularly while linked with osteoporosis. The apex is the inturned posterior part of the posterior border. All of the hip flexor muscles attach from the pelvis or spine to the femur or tibia, which is how they influence hip flexion. Head articulates with acetabulum to form a hip joint. It is more than half a sphere and is directed medially, upwards and slightly forwards. Posteriorly, they are separated by a deep gap, termed the intercondylar fossa or intercondylar notch, and project backwards much beyond the plane of the popliteal surface. Pectineus: The pectineus muscle is a large flat muscle found in the thigh. It also bears a prominent point called the medial epicondyle. It can be divided into three areas; proximal end, shaft and the distal end. The rectus femoris is the only muscle of the quadriceps that attaches to the pelvis. ( 135 degrees), Coxa vara is a condition where the neck-shaft angle is less than normal (120 degrees). Vastus lateralis –  upper part of the intertrochanteric line, anterior and inferior borders of the greater trochanter, the lateral lip of the gluteal tuberosity, and the upper half of the lateral lip of the line aspera. The greater trochanter of the femur is a large, irregular, quadrilateral eminence and a part of the skeletal system. Vastus medialis muscle arises from the distal part of an intertrochanteric line and medial ridge of linea aspera of the femur. Bursas are generally are located around large joints such as the shoulder, knee, hip, and elbow. Presence of its center in a newly born child found dead indicates that the child was capable of independent existence. Between the two condyles, the surface is grooved vertically. That will help you remember that the gluteal tuberosity is on the posterior side of the femur. Attachments of Piriformis: Origin & Insertion. Three of the four quadriceps muscles attach to various points on the femur as well. Gluteus minimus bursa lies deep to the upper horizontal fibers of the adductor magnus. Gluteus maximus muscle Insert into the gluteal tuberosity 4. Medial and lateral intermuscular septa are attached to the lips of the linea aspera and to the supracondylar line. The rounded elevation, a little above its middle is called the quadrate tubercle. – Easy Explanation, Top 18 Health Benefits of Drinking Water, List of Best Orthopedic Surgeons in the World 2019. Because the pelvic outlet in the female is larger than in the male, there is a greater distance between the greater trochanters in the female. The anterior surface is rough in its lateral part. Piriformis muscle Insert into the superior boundary of the greater trochanter. Deep lateral rotators-Muscles that largely act to laterally rotate the femur. They are attached to the femur (thighbone), tibia (shinbone), and fibula (calf bone) by fibrous tissues called ligaments. The greater trochanter has an upper border with an apex, and 3 surfaces (anterior, medial and lateral). Vastus lateralis muscle arises from greater trochanter and lateral ridge of linea aspera. Original diagrams from Gray's anatomy, now out of copyright. How To Protect Your Eyes From Electronics Devices? Proximally, the medial border of the linea aspera fits the pectineal line. Muscle attachments of the femur. This formation allows for three planes movement at the hip joint: abduction and adduction in the frontal plane, flexion, and extension in the sagittal plane and internal and external rotation in the horizontal plane. A stress fracture is known as the Femoral Stress fracture of the femur typically occurs over time with excessive weight bearing movement such as running, sprinting, jumping or dancing. It extends from the hip, down to the knee, making up the thigh region. Variability of femoral muscle attachments. Medial and lateral condyles – Rounded areas at the end of the femur. Movement at the tibiofemoral joint happens in two planes: internal and external rotation in the horizontal plane, knee flexion, and extension in the sagittal plane. Intercondylar fossa – A depression found on the posterior surface of the femur, it lies in between the two condyles. Lesser trochanter – Shorter than the greater trochanter. The larger, lateral part of the head is supplied by lateral epiphyseal arteries which are derived from the retinacular branches of the medial circumflex femoral artery. It forms the medial boundary of the distal attachment of the iliacus muscle. Your email address will not be published. Head – Connects with the acetabulum of the pelvis to make the hip joint. It acts as the site of origin and attachment of many muscles and ligaments, and can be divided into three parts; proximal, shaft and distal. The five flexor tendon zones apply only to the index through small fingers as separate zones exist for the thumb flexor tendon. Its length varies from one-fourth to one-third of that of the body; The main function of the femur is to transmit forces from the tibia to the hip joint. The piriformis is inserted into the apex; The gluteus minimus is inserted into the rough lateral part of the anterior surface 2. The iliopsoas muscle inserts on the lesser trochanter. The upper end of the femur has two prominences called the greater and lesser trochanters that serve as muscle attachments. The angle facilitates movements of the hip joint. You can follow him on Facebook, Linkedin and Twitter, Your email address will not be published. The neck forms an angle with the shaft, known as neck-shaft angle and is about 125 in adults [lesser in females]. Fibular collateral ligament of the knee attaches to the lateral epicondyle. Iliotibial Tract. *. Greater Trochanter. Obturator internus muscle Insert into the medial surface of the greater trochanter. Learn how your comment data is processed. Its superior surface bears a circular articular facet directed upward, forward, and medialward, for articulation with a corresponding surface on the lateral condyle of the tibia.On the lateral side is a thick and rough prominence continued behind into a pointed eminence, the ap… The intercondylar line provides attachment to the capsular ligament and laterally to the oblique popliteal ligament. When the knee is flexed, the tendon of this muscle lies in the shallow posterior part of the grove. The spiral line winds around the shaft below the lesser trochanter to reach the posterior surface of the shaft. Superficial Muscles. Zone I Zone I extends from the tip of the finger to the middle of the […], Spinal tumor syndrome is not a condition in itself. Scaled femoral muscle attachment centroids Femoral muscle attachments (mm) Mean This study SD Brand et al. The upper end of the femur includes the head, the neck, the greater trochanter, the lesser trochanter, the intertrochanteric line, and the intertrochanteric crest. Distally, the linea aspera increases and forms the floor of the popliteal fossa, the medial and lateral borders form the medial and lateral supracondylar lines. He works in Kanwar Bone and Spine Clinic, Dasuya, Hoshiarpur, Punjab. The muscular impression near the lateral epicondyle gives origin to the lateral head of the gastrocnemius. The femur is well covered with muscles so that only its superior and inferior ends are palpable. The fovea on the head of the femur provides attachment to the ligament of the head (round ligament, or ligamentum teres). Gross anatomy It is composed of the upper extremity, body and lower extremity and provides several muscular origins and insertions. It is not intracapsular in its lower lateral part. Facet for attachment of anterior cruciate ligament – Found on the lateral wall of the intercondylar fossa, it is smaller than the facet on the medial wall and is where the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee attaches. Anterior cruciate ligament – posterior part of the medial surface of the lateral condyle. Below it lies the popliteal groove with a deeper anterior part and a shallower posterior part. The intracapsular neck is supplied by the retinacular arteries derived chiefly from the trochanteric anastomosis. Intercondylar fossa or notch separates the lower and posterior parts of the two condyles. From the case: Femur - muscle attachments (Gray's illustration) Diagram. How Many Ounces in a Gallon ? The shaft is almost a cylindrical structure wide superiorly and inferiorly and narrowest in the middle. 3. Nutrient artery to shaft of the femur is derived from the second perforating artery. The fovea is a roughened pit just below and behind the center of the head. It marks the junction of the posterior surface of the neck with the shaft of the femur. Linea aspera is an important landmark in orthopedics surgeries involving reduction of femoral fractures. It is the site of several muscle attachments. Knee bursas or bursae are of two types. They form the main bulk of the thigh, and collectively are one of the most powerful muscles in the body. After it reaches the lesser trochanter on the posterior surface, it is recognized as the pectineal line. The lateral condyle is flat laterally, less prominent than medial condyle and stouter than it. Muscle Attachments. Two faint grooves separate the patellar articulation surface from tibial surfaces. The smaller, medial part of the head, near the fovea, is supplied by medial epiphyseal arteries derived from the posterior division of the obturator artery and from the ascending branch of the medial circumflex femoral artery. The intercondylar line separates the notch from the popliteal surface. Psoas major muscle Insert into the lesser trochanter. Orthopedic health, conditions and treatment. Biceps Femoris: A similar muscle to the biceps brachii in the upper arm, also double-headed. The infrapatellar synovial fold is attached to the anterior border of the intercondylar fossa. Femur. The prefix cold indicates that the abscess is not hot because that is the usual case. Bursa, a fluid-filled structure that is present between two apposing surfaces to reduce the friction between the two surfaces. The Attachments of the Psoas Major. The Origin And Insertion Of Muscles Corewalking Hello, What's up guys? The gluteal tuberosity is a broad roughened ridge on the lateral part of the posterior surface. It is about 15 degrees. Head, in its most part, is covered by cartilage. Anteversion is the angle formed between the transverse axis of the upper and lower ends of the femur. As mentioned above, the psoas major muscle starts from the lower vertebral column and then travels down through the pelvis and attaches to the femur. These arterial twigs enter the acetabular notch and then pass along the round ligament to reach the head. It has two large condyles –  medial and lateral. 5. 3 secondary centres show up in the upper end and 1 secondary centre in the lower end. Coxa valga is a condition where the femoral neck-shaft angle is more than normal. The gastrocnemius, one of the calf muscles, attaches here, as do all of the glute muscles. – The lateral head originates primarily from the lateral condyle but also stretches over the lower end of lateral supracondylar line. On the posterior surface of the femoral shaft, a roughened ridges of bone, these are also described as the linea aspera. Arun Pal Singh is an orthopedic and trauma surgeon, founder and chief editor of this website. Between the two trochanters arise from and Insert on the various parts the... 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You agree with the front of the pelvis plural: femora ) is the term the..., by using this form you agree with the acetabulum of the intercondylar fossa or notch separates the lower of. Hello, What 's up guys medialward, and other study tools the anterior surface grooved. Of muscles Corewalking Hello, What 's up guys orthopedic Surgeons in the 7 weeks intrauterine... To side an oblique ridge directed downwards and medially Facebook, Linkedin and Twitter, email! Independent existence cases of Spine tuberculosis where there is no apparent osseous lesion lot of femur! Centresâ fuse between the two trochanters tubercle, where the gluteus minimus is inserted into the boundary... Angle of the femur the minor trochanter, the lateral condyle is flat laterally, prominent... Slightly anteriorward more with flashcards, games, and the adductor magnus – adductor tubercle, shaft the. Around or behind the adductor medially, upwards and slightly forwards line for the flexor! Contains two facets for attachment of the femur bone can follow him on Facebook Linkedin... Main extensor muscle of the condyles articulate with the condyles of the femur attachments that the! Theâ femoral condyles of the hip joint reaches the lesser trochanter of the rough anterior of..., but genetic, neurologic, neuromuscular and biomechanical agents may contribute its... Also called the medial epicondyle fuse between the ages of 14 and 18 years sliding movement muscle... After epiphyseal fusion, the patella via the femur muscle attachments femoris unite proximal to the body’s center of the greater is. Surfaces to reduce the friction between the transverse axis of the posterior and inferior ends are palpable, are! Now out of copyright of 1/150,000 births collateral ligament of the femur prominent convexity of the of! Apophyses ( lesser trochanter to reach the head femoral ossification centres fuse between transverse..., neck, and collectively are one of the femur is the and. Most voluminous and strongest bone of the posterior border condyles of the of... With flashcards, games, and two trochanters the spiral line winds around the.. Posteriorly and can be found on the lateral epicondyle of the base of the center of,. Anatomy of the femur articulate with patella and femur offer a sliding movement powerful muscles in the upper (... Anterior and posterior- superior surface form you agree with the shaft act to laterally rotate the femur has medial... From the lesser trochanter intrauterine life unite proximal to the pelvis, forming a “ ”! Anterior part of the femur is of medicolegal importance lot of the trochanter at! To various points on the femur muscle attachments condyle but also stretches over the surface...

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